NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTIES

Bharatiya Janata Party [BJP]

Founded in    6 April 1980, India
Founder    Syama Prasad Mukherjee
Headquarters    11 Ashoka Road, New Delhi
President    Amit Shah
Parliamentary Chairperson    Narendra Modi
Lok Sabha Leader    Narendra Modi (Prime Minister)
Rajya Sabha leader    Arjun Jaitley (Finance Minister)
Prime Ministerial Candidate    Narendra Modi
Former Prime Minister    Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Alliance    National Democratic Alliance
Political Position    Right-Wing
International Affiliation    International democrat Union
  Asia Pacific Democrat Union

Shri Amit Shah

The Bharatiya Janata Party is among the major political parties in India. It is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies and the world's largest party in terms of primary membership having 100 million registered members as of April 2015. The BJP is a right-wing party, with close ideological and organizational links to the Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.

The official ideology of the BJP is "integral humanism", first formulated in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, and its policy has historically reflected Hindu nationalist positions. The BJP advocates social conservatism and a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya and the implementation of a uniform civil code. However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a largely neoliberal economic policy prioritizing globalization and economic growth over social welfare.

Indian National Congress [INC]

Founded in    28 December 1885, India
Founder    SDadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha
Headquarters    24, Akbar Road, New Delhi
President    Rahul Gandhi
Parliamentary Chairperson    Sonia Gandhi
Lok Sabha Leader    Mallikarjun Kharge
Rajya Sabha leader    Ghulam Nabi Azad
Prime Ministerial Candidate    Rahul Gandhi
Former Prime Minister    Manmohan Singh
Alliance    United Progressive Alliance
Political Position    Right-Wing
International Affiliation    Progressive Alliance
  Socialist International

Shri Rahul Gandhi

The Indian National Congress aka Congress Party is a broadly based political party in India. It was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants. Congress-led India to independence from Great Britain, and powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire.

Congress is a secular party whose social liberal platform is generally considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhi’s principle of Sarvodaya— lifting up all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and socially marginalized people. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings.

Bahujan Samaj Party [BSP]

Founded in    14 April 1984, India
Founder    Kanshi Ram
Headquarters    12, Gurudwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi
President    Mayawati
Parliamentary Chairperson    Mayawati
Secretary general    Swami Prasad Maurya
Rajya Sabha leader    Satish Chandra Mishra
Prime Ministerial Candidate    Mayawati
Political Position    Centre-Left

Kumari Mayawati

The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is the third largest national political party in India. BSP was formed mainly to represent Bahujans (literally meaning "People in majority"), referring to people from the Scheduled Castes(SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Castes (OBC), as well as religious minorities that together consist of 85 percent of India's population but still divided into 6000 different castes.

The party claims to be inspired by the philosophy of Gautama Buddha, B. R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Narayana Guru, Periyar E. V. Ramasamy and Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj. It was founded by Kanshi Ram in 1984, who named his protégée Mayawati as his successor in 2001.

Communist Party of India [CPI]

Founded in    December 26, 1925; 88 years ago
Headquarters    Indrajit Gupta Marg, New Delhi
Secretary general    S. Sudhakar Reddy
Lok Sabha leader    C.N Jayadevan
Rajya Sabha leader    D. Raja
Prime Ministerial Candidate    Mayawati
Political Position    Left Wing to Far Left

Shri S.Sudhakar Reddy

CPI is the communist party in India. There are different views on exactly when it was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. The Communist Party of India (Marxist), separated from the CPI, believes it was founded in 1925. CPI is recognised by the Election Commission of India as a 'National Party'.

To date, CPI happens to be the only national political party of India to have contested all the general elections using the same electoral symbol. On the national level, they supported the Indian National Congress-led United Progressive Alliance government, but without taking part in it. The party is part of a coalition of leftist and communist parties known in the national media as the Left Front.

Communist Party of India (Marxist) [CPI (M)]

Founded in    7 November, 1964
Headquarters    Gole Market, New Delhi
Secretary general    Sitaram Yechury
Lok Sabha leader    P.Karunakaran
Rajya Sabha leader    T.K. Rangarajan
Political Position    Far Left
Alliance    United Progressive Alliance (West Bengal)
 Left Front (Tripura), Left Democratic Front (Kerala)
 Left - Democratic Manch, Assam

Shri Sitaram Yechury

The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India. The party emerged from a split from the Communist Party of India in 1964. The CPI(M) was formed at the Seventh Congress of the Communist Party of India held in Calcutta from 31 October to 7 November 1964. As of 2018, CPI(M) is leading the state government in Kerala. It also leads the West Bengal Left Front and Left Front (Tripura). As of 2016, CPI(M) claimed to have 1,048,678 members.[6] The highest body of the party is the Politburo.

The CPI(M) is heading one state government. The Left Front government headed by the CPI(M) was uninterruptedly in power in West Bengal since 1977 upto May 2011. In Kerala, it has been in and out of office. Currently, the Left Democratic Front headed by the CPI(M) is in opposition. In Tripura, the CPI(M) was first elected to office in 1977. Though it lost the subsequent election due to large scale rigging, in all elections since 1988 it has been voted to office. Though uneven, the CPI(M) has representation in eight state legislative assemblies.

Nationalist Congress Party [NCP]

Founded in    25 May 1999
Chairperson    Sharad Pawar
Headquarters    10, Bishambhar Das Marg, New Delhi, 110001
Lok Sabha leader    Tariq Anwar
Rajya Sabha leader    Sharad Pawar
Alliance    United Progressive Alliance in Central
  and Maharashtra Left Democratic Front in Kerala

Shri Sharad Pawar

Sharad Pawar, P. A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar formed NCP on 25 May 1999, after they were expelled from the Indian National Congress (INC) on 20 May 1999, for disputing the right of Italian-born Sonia Gandhi to lead the party. At the time of formation, the party also absorbed Indian Congress (Socialist), which traced its origins to anti-coalition partner in the state of Maharajarashtra in alliance with INC. On 20 June 2012, Sangma quit the NCP to contest in presidential polls.

STATE POLITICAL PARTIES

Aam Aadmi Party

Founded in    26 November 2012
Founder    Arvind Kejriwal and others
Leader    Arvind Kejriwal
Headquarters    206, Rouse Avenue, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Marg, ITO, New Delhi
Political Position    Centre-Left to Left Wing

Shri Arvind Kejriwal

Aam Aadmi Party (translation: Common Man Party)is an Indian political party came into existence following differences between the activists Arvind Kejriwal and Anna Hazare regarding whether or not to politicise popular India Against Corruption movement that had been demanding a Jan Lokpal Bill since 2011. Hazare preferred that the movement should remain politically unaligned while Kejriwal felt the failure of the agitation route necessitated a direct political involvement.

The party's first electoral test was in 2013 in Delhi legislative assembly election, from which it emerged as the second-largest party, winning 28 of the 70 seats. With no party obtaining an overall majority, the AAP formed a minority government with conditional support from the Indian National Congress.

Communist Party of India [CPI]

Founded in    17 October 1972
Founder    M.G. Ramachandran
States/ UT    Tamil Nadu
Leader    O. Panneerselvam
President    E. Madhusudhanan
Parliamentary Chairperson    M. Thambidurai
Headquarters    1226, Avvai Shanmugam Salai, Royapettah, Chennai
Political Position    Centre

Shri E.Madhusudhanan

All India Anna Dravidian Progress Federation [AIADMK] is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. It is currently in power in Tamil Nadu. It is a Dravidian party founded by M.G. Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR) in 1972 as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK).

Since 1989, AIADMK is headed by J. Jayalalithaa, the current Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. The party headquarters is in Royapettah, Chennai, and was gifted to the party in 1986 by its former leader Janaki Ramachandran, wife of MGR. The party headed its coalition to win the Tamil Nadu assembly election 6 times to head the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.

All India Trinamool Congress

Founded in    1 January 1998
Founder    Mamata Banerjee
States/ UT    West Bengal
Leader    Mamata Banerjee
President    Mamata Banerjee
Chairperson    Mamata Banerjee
Headquarters    30 B Harish Chatterjee Street, Kolkata
Political Position    Centre-Left
Alliance    National Democratic Alliance, United Progressive Alliance

Ms. Mamata Banerjee

The All India Trinamool Congress (abbreviated AITC, TMC or Trinamool Congress) is an Indian political party based in West Bengal. Founded on 1 January 1998, the party is led by its founder and current Chief Minister of West Bengal Mamata Banerjee. Prior to the 2009 general election, it was the sixth largest party in the Lok Sabha with 19 seats; following the 2014 general election, it is currently the fourth largest party in the Lok Sabha with 34 seats.

In the 2011 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election, the Trinamool Congress-led alliance that included the INC and SUCI(C) won 227 seats in the 294-seat legislature. Trinamool Congress alone won 184 seats, enabling it to govern without an alliance. Subsequently, it won a by-election in Basirhat and two Congress MLAs switched to TMC, giving it a total of 187 seats. Now the party is trying to get a National Party Status, expanding its base in Tripura, Assam, Manipur, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Kerala,[8] Sikkim, Haryana and Arunachal Pradesh.

Janata Dal [United]

Founded in    30 October 2003
States/ UT    Bihar
President    Nitish Kumar
Lok Sabha leader    kaushlendra Kumar
Rajya Sabha leader    Ramchandra Prasad Singh
Headquarters    7 Jantar Mantar Road, New Delhi
Political Position    Centre-Left

Shri Nitish Kumar

The Janata Dal (United)'s origins go back to before the 1999 General Elections. A faction led by then Karnataka Chief Minister J. H. Patel had lent support to the National Democratic Alliance, leading to the split in the Janata Dal & formation of Janata Dal (Secular) under H. D. Deve Gowda, who wanted to remain equidistant from both national parties; and Janata Dal under Sharad Yadav.

The Janata Dal (United) was formed with the merger of the Sharad Yadav faction of the Janata Dal, the Lok Shakti Party and the Samata Party. On 30 October 2003, the Samata Party led by George Fernandes and Nitish Kumar merged with the Janata Dal. The merged entity was called Janata Dal (United) with the arrow symbol of Janata Dal (United) and the green and white flag of the Samata Party. The uniting force is believed to be common opposition to Rashtriya Janata Dal in Bihar especially after the RJD welcomed Samata Party rebels like Raghunath Jha into the party.

Lok Jan Shakti Party

Founded in    28 November 2000
States/ UT    Bihar
Leader    Ram Vilas Paswan
Parliamentary Chairman    Chirag Paswan
Headquarters    12, Janpath, New Delhi
Alliance    National Democratic Alliance

Shri Ram Vilas Paswan

The Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) is a state political party in the state Bihar, India. It is led by Ram Vilas Paswan. The party was formed in 2000 when Paswan split from Janata Dal (United). The party has considerable followers amongst Dalits in Bihar. currentlyrently, the party is a member of the National Democratic Alliance.

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena [MNS]

Founded in    9 March 2006
States/ UT    Maharashtra
Chairperson    Raj Thackeray
Leader    Raj Thackeray
Headquarters    2nd floor, Matoshri Towers, Shivaji Park, Mumbai
Political Position    Right Wing

Shri Raj Thackeray

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena is an Indian regional party based in Maharashtra and operates on the motto of "Sons of the Soil". It was founded on 9 March 2006 in Mumbai by Raj Thackeray after he left the Shiv Sena party due to differences with his paternal cousin Uddhav Thackeray and to his sidelining by the Shiv Sena in major decisions like distribution of election tickets.

The party was founded by Raj Thackeray, nephew of Late Shiv Sena leader Bal Thackeray. Raj Thackeray resigned from his uncle's party in January 2006 and announced his intention to start a new political party. At the time of the party's foundation, Raj Thackeray stated that he does not want to have hostilities with his uncle who "was, is and always will be (his) mentor". Although the MNS is a breakaway group from the Shiv Sena, the party is still based on Marathi and Bhumiputra ideologies.

Rashtriya Janata Dal [RJD]

Founded in     5 July 1997
States/ UT    Bihar
President    Lalu Prasad Yadav
Chairperson    Lalu Prasad Yadav
Leader    Lalu Prasad Yadav
Leader in lok Sabha    Jay Prakash Narayan Yadav
Leader in Rajya Sabha    Ram Jethmalani
Alliance    Janta Parivar Alliance,United Progressive Alliance

Shri Lalu Prasad Yadav

The Rashtriya Janata Dal (translation: National People's Party) is an Indian political party, based in the northern state of Bihar. The party was founded in 1997 by Lalu Prasad Yadav. The mass base of the party has traditionally been Yadavs and Muslims, two large and relatively politically active segments of Bihar's population.

In 2008, RJD received the status of the recognized national level party following its performance in north-eastern states. RJD was derecognized as a national party on 30 July 2010. In the March 1998 national elections, RJD won 17 Lok Sabha seats from Bihar but failed to make significant headway in any other state. Later that year, the party formed an alliance with Mulayam Singh Yadav Samajwadi Party as an anti-Bharatiya Janata Party secular coalition but the coalition failed in garnering any widespread support.

Samajwadi Party [SP]

Founded in     4 October 1992
Founder    Mulayam Singh Yadav
States/ UT    Uttar Pradesh
President    Akhilesh Yadav
Chairperson    Mulayam Singh Yadav
Leader    Akhilesh Yadav
Leader in lok Sabha    Mulayam Singh Yadav
Leader in Rajya Sabha    Ram Gopal Yadav
Alliance     Janta Parivar Alliance
Political Position     Left Wing

Shri Akhilesh Yadav

Samajwadi Party (SP; translation: Socialist Party), founded on 4 October 1992 ) is a political party in India headquartered in New Delhi and the largest recognised state party of the country. Based in Uttar Pradesh, a northern state in India, it describes itself as a democratic socialist party. The Party was one of several parties that emerged when the Janata Dal (People's League) fragmented into several regional parties. Former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Akhilesh Yadav, leads the party after he was chosen the President by the National Convention held on 1 January 2017.

The Samajwadi Party is primarily based in Uttar Pradesh State. It has contested Lok Sabha and State Assembly elections around the country, though its successes have been mainly in Uttar Pradesh. In the 2012 legislative assembly elections of Uttar Pradesh, party registered a landslide victory with a clear majority in the House, thus enabling it to form the government in the state. This was expected to be the fifth term of Mulayam Singh Yadav as Chief Minister of state, but he surprised everyone by selecting his son, Akhilesh Yadav, to be the new chief minister (the youngest ever). It became official on 15 March. It was also the first time that SP was head of the UP government for a full term of 5 years.

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha [JMM]

Founded in    1972
Founder    Binod Bihari Mahato
States/ UT    Jharkhand
President    Shibu Soren
Lok Sabha leader    Shibu Soren
Alliance    United Progressive Alliance, national Democratic Alliance
Political Position    Centre-Right

Shri Shibu Soren

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) (translation: Jharkhand Liberation Front) is a state political party in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It has two seats in the 15th Lok Sabha. JMM is also an influential political party in the neighbouring Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal.

The party was officially created on the birthday of Birsa Munda, the 19th-century tribal warrior of Jharkhand, who fought against the British rule in present-day Jharkhand. The State of Jharkhand also came into existence on Birsa Munda's birthday in 2000.

Shiv Sena

Founded in    19 June 1966
Founder    Balasaheb Thackeray
States/ UT    Maharashtra
Chairperson    Uddhav Thackeray
President    E. Madhusudhanan
Leader    Uddhav Thackeray
Lok Sabha leader    Anandrao Adsul
Rajya Sabha leader    Sanjay Raut
Alliance    National Democratic Alliance
Political Position    Far Right

Shri Uddhav Thackeray

Shiv Sena is an Indian far-right regional political party. Its ideology is based on pro-Marathi ideology and Hindu nationalism (Hindutva), founded on 19 June 1966 by political cartoonist Bal Thackeray. The party originally emerged from a movement in Mumbai demanding preferential treatment for Maharashtrians over migrants to the city. It is currently headed by Thackeray's son, Uddhav Thackeray. Members of Shiv Sena are referred to as Shiv Sainiks.

Although the party's primary base is still in Maharashtra, it has tried to expand to a pan-Indian base. In the 1970s, it gradually moved from advocating a pro-Marathi ideology to one supporting a broader Hindu nationalist agenda, as it aligned itself with the Bharatiya Janata Party. The party started taking part in Mumbai (BMC) Municipal elections since its inception. In 1989, it entered into an alliance with BJP for Lok Sabha as well as Maharashtra assembly elections, the latter of which was temporarily broken in October 2014 Assembly elections but it was undone soon and Shiv Sena became part of the BJP government in Maharashtra in December 2014.

It has been a coalition partner in the National Democratic Alliance since 1998, including the Vajpayee Government during 1998–2004 and the present Narendra Modi Government. The party has a powerful hold over the Bollywood film industry. It has been referred to as an "extremist", "chauvinist", as well as a "fascist party". Shiv Sena has been blamed for the 1970 communal violence in Bhiwandi, the 1984 Bhiwandi riot and violence in the 1992-1993 Bombay riots.

YSR Congress Party

Founded in     12 March 2011
Founder    Y.S Jaganmohan Reddy
States/ UT    Andhra Pradesh
Chairperson    Y.S Jaganmohan Reddy
Leader    Y.S Jaganmohan Reddy
Leader in lok Sabha    Mekapati Rajamohan Reddy
Leader in Rajya Sabha    V. Vijay Sai Reddy
Political Position    Centre-left

Shri Y.S Jaganmohan Reddy

YSR Congress Party or Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party (literally means: Youth, Labour and Farmer Congress Party) is a regional political party in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in India. It was founded by Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy, the son of former Andhra Pradesh chief minister Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy(popularly known as YSR) in 2011. Both YSR and Jaganmohan Reddy (called Jagan by his followers) had been members of the Indian National Congress. Jagan was also elected as the national president of the party.